What Is The Difference Between Lean Management And Six Sigma

What is the difference between lean management and six sigma

One of the major ongoing debates in the business world is to choose which is the best methodology between Lean Management and Six Sigma methodologies to implement in businesses. Yes, undoubtedly, there is a difference between Lean management and Six Sigma because even though they have the same end goal of creating efficient work processes while eliminating waste, they take different approaches to achieving these goals. Before discussing the difference between Lean Management and Six Sigma, let’s see the major principles in both Lean Management and Six Sigma and how these concepts are executed in businesses. What is Lean Management?   Lean management is a long-term philosophical approach that focuses on continuous improvement and efficiency through small, incremental changes. It seeks to eliminate any waste of time, effort, or money. It is a methodology that aims to remove any part of the process that does not bring value to the customer. What are the Principles of Lean Management?   There are five major principles of Lean Management that will make it easy to understand the methodology of Lean management thoroughly. 1. Identifying the Value This principle is designed to do what every company desires by satisfying customers with a product or service after understanding their needs on an individual basis. Then, simply adding value that corresponds to the customer’s wants and needs will suffice. The first principle is to identify what value the company needs to deliver to satisfy shareholders. After that, the company can move on to satisfying other business goals. 2. Value Stream Mapping   1. Value In Lean, value is defined through the eyes of the customer. Therefore, anything that adds value to the customer, anything for which a customer is willing to pay, is known to be the value in Lean Management. 2. Value Stream A value stream is the sequence of actions an organisation takes to provide value to customers in the form of products or services. It encompasses everything from how materials are sourced and processed to customer service policies and procedures, all the way down to delivering the final product or service quality. 3. Value Stream Mapping The process of defining and depicting the steps involved in bringing a product or service to market is known as value stream mapping in Lean Management. This procedure helps identify where resources are being consumed, how they’re being utilised, and what results have been achieved thus far. As a result, it aids managers in making informed decisions about where to allocate their time and resources.  Value stream mapping can help organisations optimise the flow of value while creating a more efficient, predictable, and agile system. This process helps to identify where goods and services are being wasted or duplicated, as well as identify any potential issues with 3. Creating a continuous workflow After mastering the value stream mapping process, each team’s workflow should remain smooth so that steps that create value are executed sequentially and with high quality. This principle ensures that valuable products reach customers steadily as possible while maintaining an appropriate level of quality. By breaking down the work into smaller chunks and visualising its flow, you’ll be able to detect potential problems early on and avoid them causing delays or interruptions when providing a product or service. 4. Establishing a pull system Once the flow is initiated, customers pull value from the next level of activity. In lean methodology, creating and establishing a pull system is needed to have a stable workflow that can deliver work tasks much faster with less effort. To conserve resources, work is only pulled when there’s a demand for it. For example, a young woman goes to the coffee shop and orders chocolate milk. Then the barista prepares her chocolate milk exactly how she requested it – no additional brewing required. This happened because, at that moment, there wasn’t any customer demand for hot chocolates, so the equipment was left unused. 5. Pursuing perfection Lean leaders seek to steer their organisation in the direction of a perfect value stream by implementing continuous improvements at every level. This approach is designed to achieve perfection while eliminating waste through small adjustments that are made over time. This principle ensures that the other four principles are followed consistently and continuously. The principles of “5S” work together with Lean management to create a successful workplace. Here are the 5S concepts and their translations into English. Seiri à – Organized. Seiton à – Order Seiso à – Cleanliness Seiketsu à – Standardization Shitsuke à – Discipline Pillars of Lean Management. There are 2 pillars of Lean, and they are Continuous Improvement and Respect for people. When used correctly, these guiding pillars help in smarter decision-making and guide companies toward turning into smarter, more productive systems. 1. Continuous improvement Continuous improvement (Kaizen) is a way to make things better by finding ways to streamline work and reduce waste. This helps speed up the delivery of value and can lead to great results. Kaizen is based on ideas from Lean Management, and it’s used by many businesses around the world. When implemented well, Kaizen can save lots of money and make things faster and better.  2. Respect for people The second pillar of Lean management is respecting the people and organisations that practice Lean management respects the people involved in this process, including customers, employees, and team members at all levels. What are the wastes introduced in lean management?   Reducing waste is one of the most essential concepts in Lean manufacturing. According to lean thinking, waste is defined as something that the customer does not pay for. Therefore, it does not add value to any product, service, or feature. So getting rid of them is critical, and businesses of all sizes struggle with all kinds of exorbitant waste. There are 8 major types of waste introduced in Lean Management. The followings are those 8 wastes of Lean Management which are given by the acronym DOWNTIME, which stands for Defects, Over-production, Waiting, Non-utilized talent, Transportation,

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What is Jidoka and Just in Time _ Detailed guide

What is Jidoka and Just in Time | Detailed guide

Two main concepts of the Toyota Production System: Jidoka and Just in Time. The Toyota production system is the production system that systematises the way of thinking and the management technique that improves a company’s competitiveness. It is a philosophy of improving competitiveness as a company. The Toyota production system is grounded by the two pillars of its two main concepts, Jidoka and Just in Time (JIT). Having an idea about the concept of Jidoka and the concept of Just in Time will make it easy to understand the philosophy of the Toyota Production System as well as Lean management. What is the Jidoka concept?   What is meant by the word “Jidoka”? The most common translation of Jidoka is autonomation. It is Japanese in origin, as many specialised words in Lean. Even though Jidoka is pronounced as the Japanese word for automation, it is not written in the same way. Instead, the ‘Humane’ character has been added. Therefore, the meaning has also changed from Automation to Automation with the human touch or autonomation. The term traces its roots back to the early 1990s at Toyota motor corporation, which was then a textile manufacturing company. Sakichi Toyoda, an inventor and the founder of Toyota, developed a device that could detect broken threads in a loom and stops the machine from producing defective materials. Before the invention of Sakichi Toyoda, workers had to keep an eye on every machine constantly because looms continued to make defective fabrics when a thread broke.  This concept in which intelligence was added to machines enabled companies to greatly increase the number of machines a single operator could run, and it was very little extra effort on the workers’ part. This jidoka concept makes production easier for operators and more profitable for companies. The concept of Jidoka. The definition of Jidoka is Automation with the human touch, but it has a further meaning than just automation with human touch or autonomation. It is about stopping whenever an abnormal condition is detected, then fixing the defect, and lastly, encountering measuring to prevent future occurrences.   Taichi Ohno said, “No problem discovered when stopping the line should wait longer than tomorrow morning to be fixed.” If we simply put together what Taichi Ohno said, he meant that all the problems you identify are opportunities to improve the manufacturing process. So do not squander those opportunities through inactivity. Basic steps of Jidoka. There are five basic steps in this concept of Jidoka. They are as below: The machine detects abnormal conditions. All the tools and required devices in the production should be combined with a signalling device to alert the operator in charge about the abnormal condition. If not, a device should be installed with a device or system capable of detecting errors and mistakes. Those mistakes/ abnormalities include machine failures, product defects, and raw materials errors. The machine stops itself. After defecting the abnormality, whether it is a machine failure, product defect, or an error in raw materials, the process should be able to stop automatically. That is to take immediate action without causing any more damage or any kind of waste in the manufacturing process. Furthermore, with the capability of the machines to cease automatically upon detecting an abnormality, the operators working in the same process should also have the chance and the ability to stop the manufacturing process manually if they notice any abnormalities. Implementing a stopgap The concept of Jidoka demands more than just detecting an abnormal condition, error, or mistake and stopping the whole process of production. In fact, it also needs you to implement stopgaps to get the process of production to work again. A Stopgap is a temporary solution that can be applied to deal with the situation. Identifying the root cause Identifying the root cause is a vital step to finding a solution as well as preventing that from happening again in the future. Therefore, when the machines automatically stop production from continuing upon detecting an abnormal condition or when operators manually stop the process upon noticing an error, the operators in charge should evaluate the whole scenario and find the root causes for the current situation. The evaluation should be carried out as soon as possible, and should come to a decision on whether to continue halting the production or resume it. Providing solutions After evaluating the issues and the abnormal condition, solutions and the necessary actions should be implemented to fix the problem. After implementing the solutions made, production can resume and continue the manufacturing process. It is the responsibility of the management to take action to prevent the recurrence of the same abnormal condition. They should enforce strong solutions that are permanent to ensure the recurrence. The basic steps to implement the concept of Jidoka. A company-wide paradigm shift is needed to implement the concept of Jidoka. That includes ignoring apparently minor problems in order to meet deadlines to taking responsibility for quality assurance at the source. Wherever a company falls on this spectrum, it reminds us of the fact that the core of jidoka is the human being. Moreover, the people working alongside machines for the further betterment of the overall process of production are the key to a successful implementation of the concept of Jidoka. The followings are the three basic steps to implement the concept of Jidoka in your business. Ensuring commitment from the higher level of the hierarchy. The first step to implementing the concept of Jidoka in your business is to ensure commitment from the higher level of the hierarchy about this. This concept of Jidoka is often neglected in comparison to the other main concept of the Toyota Production System, Just In Time (JIT). The higher level of the hierarchy, which is probably the management of the company, should regard Jidoka the same way they regard Just In Time (JIT). After it gets the commitment it deserves, the organisation should come up with a clear definition of what to mean in the

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Toyota Production System Principles

Toyota Production System Principles

What is Toyota Production System? Toyota production system is the production system that systematises the way of thinking and the management technique that improves a company’s competitiveness. Even though many people think the Toyota Production system could be applied to only mass production, it responds to the customer requirements in the small lot production of many products. With the Toyota Production System principles, the best quality, the shortest lead time, and the lowest cost are expired through the thorough elimination of waste. In simple words, TPS is a philosophy of improving competitiveness as a company. Besides, it is a developing philosophy to enhance its effectiveness. History of Toyota Production System. At the beginning of the 20th century, as typified by the Ford Model T, the mass production era began in the United States. Then the moving assembly line production using conveyor lines was developed as the demand for that mass production. However, at that time in Japan, the small lot production of many products was demanded even though mass production wasn’t introduced. Plus, the market size in Japan was small, and it was difficult to make many kinds of products in small amounts. Under these circumstances, people in the Toyota motor corporation tried to come up with a way to minimise the costs in the small lot production of many products. Finally, they came up with a production system to improve its competitiveness, and it is developed today’s Toyota Production System. Industrial engineers Taiichi Ohno and Eiji Toyoda are the primary predecessors known for the development of TPS. Principles of Toyota Production System. For a better understanding of this system, it is vital to have a thorough knowledge of the principles used in it. Originating from Jeffery K. Liker’s book, “the Toyota Way”, there are 14 Toyota Production System principles. Here are those 14 Toyota Production System principles, and each of them is integral to the success of TPS. Principle 1: Follow a long-term philosophy. When taking management decisions in a company, one should base that on a long-term philosophy, even at the expense of short-term financial goals. It helps to avoid short-term decision-making. In an organisation, aligning everyone toward a common goal to grow should be prioritised over making money. It is what builds the foundation for other principles. For the company, it means generating a greater sense of importance within the workforce than just going to work for money. Employees should believe that people are their greatest assets and should not be hollow. A good relationship should be built with the workforce along with trust, and the workforce committees should be supported and seen as assets, not objects of conflict. Toyota production system thrives on building trust and having mutual respect with their customers. Therefore, one should accept their responsibilities and act self-reliant to improve the required skills to produce value and maintain that. Principle 2: Work to create a continuous process flow. One of the main ways to achieve a high value-added continuous flow is redesigning the work process. Try to avoid waiting time for any work project(one of the 8 wastes of Lean Management). The traditional approach to manufacturing is to group similar machines and similarly skilled people resulting in units of excellence or departments of a similar function. It aims to immediately bring problems to the surface and keep the unit price to a minimum. It also gives apparent flexibility as employees can change around work. For example, consider a traditional manufacturing operation with three manufacturing machine sales run in batch production in a welding department. To make a product, it has to go through each of the machines in order and the cycle time for each machine is 1 minute. If the order is for 10 parts, firstly, those 10 parts will have to be machined in machine 1, and it will take 10 minutes to complete the batch. Then it will be transferred to machine 2, and it will take further 10 minutes to complete. Then it will be forwarded to machine 3, where it will be finished off in another 10 minutes. The total time to complete would be 30 minutes. The first part will come through after 21 minutes (10+10+1). Now consider the same product goes through a lean process where we have a one-piece flow. The first piece will straight away go through machine 1, then machine 2, and lastly, machine 3 without being batched. The total time to complete one part is 3 minutes. We will then get a completed part off the line every minute following. Then a total of 10 parts will be completed in a total of 12 minutes. This clearly demonstrates the benefit of following the continuous flow. As we know, the objective of Lean is to provide what the customer wants when they want it in the quantity that is required. It takes a considerable amount of time, effort, and change to be undertaken to create a reliable continuous flow. Here are some activities required to move to a continuous process flow. Creating excellence in workplace organisation. Standardising processes that are developed around simple machines. Having well-maintained reliable systems. Having a well-planned layout. Proper training and communication between employees. Teamwork. JIT processes. Kaizen activity programs. Principle 3: Use the “Pull” system to avoid overproduction. In traditional manufacturing systems, machines run as fast as possible for as long as possible because they are operated to maximise output. They are generally accounts-driven, and the focus is to gain payback and return on the capital equipment investment. On any other equipment than the bottleneck process, this will only generate an inventory. We fill our cars as we need fuel. If we dispense the same quantity of fuel to our car each week without any indication of the requirement, it will either overfill and spill, or we will be running out of fuel depending on the car’s usage. The car has visual indicators to help us control our fuel requirements. The needle indicator shows fuel level status

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Why do you need lean management certifications

Why do you need lean management certifications.

With Lean management Certifications, you will be able to outshine everyone and stand out among the rest, whether you are a seasoned professional or a fresh beginner lean enthusiast looking to advance your professional career in any field. What is Lean Certification? A certification proves that you have the right skills and experience in a particular field. If you want to learn how to reduce waste, minimize costs, enhance productivity, and improve efficiency while systematically managing complex business processes, Lean Certifications are for you! Lean Certification is a globally recognized and respected professional credential that validates your knowledge and ability to apply Lean management methodologies practically and helps you become a master of productivity. What is Lean Management? Lean management is picking up steam in the business world because of its broad applicability to processes within businesses of all scales in assisting in achieving their business goals in a more flourishing and sustainable way. Lean management is a long-term strategic approach designed to eliminate waste while continuously improving work processes to better address customer requirements defining the value of a product, service, or feature from their standpoint. Lean Certifications in Lean Management. Lean certifications can open numerous doors to strengthen your professional journey in any field you’re working in. Here are the four main Lean Certification Levels that are globally recognized in Lean management Certified Lean Yellow belt Certified Lean Green belt Certified Lean Black belt Certified Lean Master black belt Certified Lean Yellow belt. The Certified Lean Yellow Belt is equivalent to a certified Lean initiator, and this certification is best for beginner lean enthusiasts along with leaders in the manufacturing sector. This Lean initiator certification provides practical guidance to identify waste within the company that doesn’t add value to the product and ways to eliminate that waste. Moreover, Lean Yellow Belt certification holders will have the knowledge about following Lean methodologies and techniques Lean Management principles 8 Types of Wastes and Practical Applications 5S for productivity Lean Process Mapping Gemba Kaizen for Continuous Improvement Systematic Problem Solving A3 Thinking Lean Metrics Quality Circles Visual Management (Visual Pyramid) Team management Presentation skills With this certification, you will get the opportunity to lead a Quality Circle Initiative in the company and will be able to organize Quality circle level projects within the company as well. Plus, starting process-level improvements and implementing necessary changes with a kaizen mindset is one of the significant benefits of this lean certification. Additionally, the yellow belt certification allows you to create standards for working environments, providing the skills needed to lead operational improvement projects and solve problems systematically to establish reliable business results in your organization. Certified Lean Green belt. This certification of Lean Green Belt is equivalent to a certified Lean practitioner and is highly recommended for Directors, Senior Managers, Managers, and Assistant Managers in organizations. The Lean Yellow belt qualification is needed to be eligible for this certification. Lean Green Belt certification holders are experts in following Lean methodologies and techniques Lean Management Principles 8 Types of Wastes and Practical Applications 5S for productivity Lean Process Mapping Introduction to Value Stream Mapping Gemba Kaizen for Continuous Improvement Systematic Problem Solving A3 Thinking Lean Metrics Quality Circles 8 Step problem solving Pull System, Kanban, and Hijenka load levelling Total Productive Maintenance Quick Changeover (SMED) Error proofing and self-ownership Yamazumi and Layout Preparation STW, JIT, Multiskilling Safety & Ergonomics Basic AM & PM Managing kaizen events Lean A3 visual presentation skills Lean Project Management As mentioned above, this Lean Certification level provides you with education about the basis of Lean, 8 Types of Wastes, 5S for Productivity, Gemba, etc., and more about Process Mapping, Lean Metrics, and Lean Problem-solving Techniques. Along with these techniques, Green belt holders can take the responsibility to coach team members on process improvement methods and activities and conduct training on Lean methodologies. Note- If you want to grasp knowledge on areas such as Value Stream Mapping & Current & Future (Intro Level), Lean New Product Development, QCO, Chassis model, and PCU, the Lean Green Belt Certification Program conducted by the Center for Lean can help you with that. Certified Lean Black belt. This lean certification is equivalent to being a certified Lean leader in a business. The Lean Leader Black Belt certification establishes a true realistic vision for the organization to achieve operational excellence while continuously striving to identify value stream level improvement opportunities, develop continuous improvement behaviors, set daily management routines, and promote systematic problem-solving at every level of the organization. Given below are some lean methodologies and techniques that you will be getting in the Lean Black belt certification. The Black belt holders are able to take the responsibility to lean coach practitioners on process improvement methods and activities and conduct training on Lean methodologies. Certified Master Black Belt. This is the highest level of Lean certification, and it is equivalent to Lean expert. It focuses on individuals who have acquired exceptional expertise and knowledge of the current business practice. Master Black belt certification provides outstanding leadership qualities along with helping to maintain a strong commitment to the practice and enhancement of quality and productivity. The important section covered under Master Black Belt Certification includes the followings. Enterprise-wide Planning Organizational Competencies for Deployment Project Portfolio Management Training Design and Delivery Coaching and Mentoring Responsibilities Advanced-Data Management and Analytic Methods Organization-wide Planning and Deployment Organizational Process Management and Measures Team Management Define Phase Measure Phase Analyze Phase Improve Phase Control Phase Why do we need Lean certifications? A continuous thirst for knowledge is critical in building a growing, thriving business. Even though following certification programs require investing money, time, and resources, Professional certifications are essential for personal growth and add credibility to your expertise as they demonstrate your commitment to superior professionalism, upholding the standards of the business industry, and continued learning. Ability to distinguish between value and waste Lean management is mainly designed to eliminate waste to improve the efficiency and productivity of an organization. To eliminate

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Benefits of the Toyota Production System

Benefits of the Toyota Production System

You’ve probably heard of some of the many benefits of the Toyota Production System. However, before getting into that, you should know precisely what Toyota Production System is. What is Toyota Production System? Toyota Production System is a production system established to build efficiency in the shortest time to deliver customer needs. The whole production is systematized through the thought of complete elimination of waste and the thorough pursuit of the rationality of how to make it. It is still a developing philosophy that enhances the competitiveness of a company. Concepts of Toyota Production System. The Toyota Production System is grounded on two main pillars, which sustain the basic philosophy of this system: cost reduction and conservation of resources through the elimination of waste. Just in Time (JIT) In simple words, it refers to the production of what you need, when it is required, as much as you need without stagnation so that it flows. It eliminates waste and enhances work efficiency. Automation with the human touch In simple words, it means to stop operations immediately if there is an abnormality or a problem and let the operators know about that issue. Origin of Just in time  Kiichirou Toyoda, the founder of Toyota Motor Corporation, conceived Toyota’s just-in-time concept. He was the eldest son of Sakichi Toyoda, the founder of Toyota industries and the originator of the Toyota Group. Even though Toyota is one of the world’s leading vehicle companies in today’s world, after World War II, they were in a business crisis and had to carry out a significant restructuring. At that time, Japan was far less productive than the United States. Kiichirou Toyoda thoroughly researched the cause of the difference with the United States and the cause of the high cost. Then he discovered that just-in-time production was a way for Japan to survive. Origin of Automation with a human touch Sakichi Toyoda devised automation with the human touch. He was one of Japan’s leading inventors and who has sent out several inventions to the world. A typical example is the G-type automatic looming machine that stops automatically when the thread is broken. This invention was an epic make, one that eliminated the need for people to monitor thread breakage and led to a significant improvement in productivity. The automation with human touch originated in this G type, the automatic looming machine. It is Mr Taiichi Ohno who embodied and systematized ideas of just-in-time and automation with the human touch. He became the vice president of Toyota Motor Corporation and gradually started to embroider these two ideas even though they were not completely understood at that time. Now it is not only limited to Toyota Motor Company. All the other industries and suppliers around the world are also following these concepts. Toyota Production System Principles. There are 14 Toyota Production System principles, and they originate from Jeffery K. Liker’s book, “the Toyota Way,” and each of them is integral to the success of TPS. They help to improve your knowledge of Toyota’s Production System philosophy. Benefits of the Toyota Production System. The Toyota Production System benefits an organization and its people in numerous aspects. Here are the top 16 benefits that you will be enjoying after following the Toyota Production System philosophy. 1. Helps to avoid short-term decision making The first principle of the Toyota Production System is to follow a long-term philosophy when taking management decisions, even at the expense of short-term financial goals. This eventually helps the company to avoid short-term decisions that might negatively affect the organization as a whole. 2. Reduce wastage of time One of the main focuses of the Toyota Production System is to provide customers with premium quality products in the shortest lead time and at the minimum cost while reducing waste in the company. Toyota’s Production System philosophy makes companies work to create a continuous process flow in work processes. That helps to reduce the waste of time in manufacturing products, unlike using traditional manufacturing operations that run batch production.  3. Avoid overproduction In traditional manufacturing systems, machines run as fast as possible for as long as possible because they are operated to get the maximum output as much as possible. But when there’s no demand from the customers, those excessively manufactured products get wasted. Therefore, Toyota Production System uses a “Pull” system that only manufactures products in the quantity that meets customers’ demands at a particular time. Consequently, it avoids overproduction in manufacturing products in the company. 4. Reduce wastage of resources Overproduction leads to a massive waste of all kinds of resources, including human, material, financial, and intangible resources. From employees’ skills, raw materials, tools, machines setup costs, and capital costs to intangible resources like patents, trademarks are also getting wasted in overproduction. But by applying Toyota Production System principles like using a “Pull” system to reduce the waste of these resources. 5. Eliminate unnecessary workload on people Eliminating unnecessary workloads is essential to maintain a positive company culture within the company and enhancing productivity. “Heijunka” is a methodology that is used in the Toyota Production System to level out the workload of all the processes in a company. As a result, it creates an evenness and helps the company to grow further. 6. Helps to address problems quickly One of the pillars of Toyota Production System philosophy is automation with a human touch. It refers to immediately stopping operations when there is an abnormality or a problem and making the operators aware of it. Companies that follow TPS possess machines that detect and flag abnormal conditions in manufacturing. It benefits the whole organization by allowing the process operators to address those abnormal conditions quickly. 7. Maintain regular outputs in the regular time Toyota Production System uses stable methods in the manufacturing processes, and that helps to maintain the predictability of those manufacturing processes by producing regular outputs in regular time. It also benefits in maintaining the reputation of the organization. 8. Create a more organized workplace

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What is Lean Management

What is Lean Management

Lean management is a long-term approach to management that focuses on continuous improvement and efficiency through small, incremental changes. It seeks to eliminate any waste of time, effort, or money. This Lean management, also known as Lean Manufacturing, affects every level of the company’s hierarchy, intending to make it more flexible and better able to address customer requirements faster. Lean management continues to be famous among all kinds of businesses as it is designed to define value from the end customer’s perspective, eliminate waste within the business, and continuously improve all work processes, purposes, and people. In addition, it encourages shared responsibility and leadership while ensuring that each employee is an equal contributor. What is meant by LEAN?   Less. Space Movement Stock/scarp Waiting Finance  Enhance. Quality Safety Performance Flexibility Productivity Analyze. Process 5s Standardised Work Delivery Waste Numerical control. Trends Performance Process Status KPIs- Key Performance Indicators Visual Management History of Lean Management. In 1975 Toyota Production System (TPS) was a small automobile manufacturer, and the company’s owner was assigned the responsibility of identifying areas for improvement across all processes and figuring out ways to eliminate waste and reduce the cost of manufacturing production by his employees. The employees worked on certain principles, and the concept of lean management or manufacturing originated. The methodologies and operational processes Toyota Production System used were adhered to by other companies when they achieved success on a global level. Pillars of Lean Management. There are two pillars of Lean Management, and they are Continuous Improvement and Respect for people. When used correctly, these guiding pillars help in more thoughtful decision-making and guide companies toward becoming more innovative and productive systems. Continuous improvement. Continuous improvement, or Kaizen, is a methodology created to figure out opportunities for streamlining work and reducing waste. This encourages boosting the speed and quality of value delivery. The operation was formalised by the popularity of Lean in manufacturing and business, and now in the present time, thousands of companies around the world practice this method to identify savings opportunities. Outstanding results can be obtained by combining these ideologies. Some of the wastes in knowledge work are, Wait times between the steps in a process Context switching Rework Excessive planning The most effective way to reduce waste in any organisation is by working to improve constantly. Eliminating these types of waste through continuous improvement allows organisations to work more efficiently, reducing wasted time and effort while improving the speed of value delivery. The Continuous Improvement Cycle. The continuous improvement cycle is a flexible process that outlines the basic steps in the process of constant improvement: Identify Plan Execute Review When encountering a new opportunity, teams use this method to identify a hypothesis, plan a solution, implement the changes, and measure the results. The final step of this improvement cycle, the review, is critical to the continuous improvement process because businesses cannot continuously improve without a way to measure and reflect upon the impact of their decisions. Among all Lean methodologies, continuous improvement is a primary focus, in addition to high customer service standards and the reduction of waste in the form of cost, time, and defects. Respect for people. The second pillar of Lean management is respecting the people and organisations that practice Lean Management. Execute this methodology by respecting people, including customers, employees, and the team at every part of the value stream Respect for customers. This methodology mainly focuses on paying attention to the customers’ voices instead of relying on educated guesses about the problem. Organisations that practice Lean Management respect their customers by limiting waste that the customer would not be willing to pay. More specifically, not wasting the customer’s time on a product, service, or feature that doesn’t serve the customer’s requirements. Lean organisations always try to get customers’ points of view on improving their products, features, and services to meet their needs more finely. Respect for employees. Employees of Lean organisations are bestowed with the autonomy, mastery, and purpose to perform at a high level for the betterment of the business. Lean leaders mentor their employees perfectly, guiding them to stay focused on delivering customer value, which in turn would help the business. For example, mentoring marketers to manage spending capital on leads that only benefit the process or the company or else guiding salespeople to invest in specific, targeted leads instead of aimlessly chasing any information. As respecting employees targets the waste that Lean aims to eliminate, it enables those organisations to produce products of higher quality, at a lower cost, in a more sustainable way. In addition, it also succours Lean organisations by removing the layers of overhead between the customer and the employees who are directly producing the product. Respect in teams. In Lean Management, “Teams” are not defined as a group of employees that operate for personal goals to advance in their careers. Instead, lean teams work to optimise the system by visualising and distributing work to deliver value to the customer in the fastest, most sustainable way. According to Lean Management, that one team member who does the work of a few other teammates sets a detrimental, non-viable standard for the whole team and gets in the way of meeting objectives that benefit the customer. Lean management methodologies limit Work in Process (WIP) at the team and individual levels to discourage this way. Team members should respect each other by collaborating and distributing work evenly across themselves. The team manages work as a system rather than as a group of individuals while prioritising the delivery of value. 5 Principles of Lean Management. “A way to do more and more with less and less-less human effort, less equipment, less time, and less space while coming closer and closer to providing customers exactly what they want,” says Womack and Jones defining Lean. Lean Management has proven to be successful in managing productivity and efficiency while eliminating waste in most demanding industries like software development, manufacturing, construction, healthcare, high technology, education services, and many

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